The future for both Pablo Torre and ESPN Daily is brighter than ever.
The Harvard grad turned sports writer won viewers over following his on-air debut with ESPN. Championed by none other than the great Tony Reali, Pablo was an instant fan favorite of the Around The Horn rotation. In a press release from ESPN, the network cited that Torre’s regular presence on both Around The Horn and Highly Questionable will continue as he assumes the host position of the ESPN Daily Podcast, which launched in October.
The multi-platform success combined with the raw talent, ambition and insight that Pablo brings to the table as the new host of ESPN Daily have excited fans and talent in the industry.
In his eight years with ESPN, the audience and the sports media world are in for a treat as Torre’s arsenal is caked with weapons that highlight the key ingredients necessary for success in the podcast platform: journalism, skilled content selection, calculated research, thoughtful analysis, unbridled ambition and passion.
I had the pleasure of speaking with Pablo about his career and what to expect out of ESPN Daily with him at the helm.
Chrissy Paradis: So I’m going to start off by congratulating you on the news about ESPN Daily. How excited are you about this opportunity?
Pablo Torre: I’m wildly excited, and I’m in general a pretty picky person when it comes to what I take on in terms of projects, and this was one that as soon as I even vaguely heard a rumor about it, I was already super interested. It just makes a lot of sense for me and my skill set and my passions, and I’m a fan of the show and it’s coming out of a good bit of news for my friend Mina Kimes obviously, so it’s one of those rare sort of media transactions that is kind of celebratory all the way around. It’s actually been a really rewarding couple of days so far.
CP: Absolutely. And I know that you mentioned Mina Kimes and her work on the show thus far. I know there’s been mention of Mina continuing to join you on ESPN Daily from time to time, as well.
PT: Yes, so she’ll be one of our go-to football correspondents, and then she has kindly volunteered when I have to take some vacation to be a fill in host. So, she will still absolutely be part of the family.
This was something that she was obviously with from the ground floor, so I want to make sure that she feels both welcome and an active part of what we’re going to keep on building and developing.
CP: And in terms of the development, are there any changes or additions you plan to to implement as host of ESPN Daily?
PT: Yeah, definitely. I mean one of the obvious things that’s gonna happen for us is that the personality of the host will kind of shape, I think, a lot about the sensibility of it.
One of the great things about this show and why I was so excited about taking it over is that Mina has a sort of managing editor role when it comes to picking and choosing what she wants to cover and how to cover it. And we have an amazing team of people that ESPN built and gathered and hired that is obviously essential to the doing of the show– but the host’s ability to shape that coverage, is I think the obvious way it’ll change.
But beyond that…I love the show as it is, I want to keep growing it. I want to keep increasing the audience that’s sort of implicit in the task at hand but for me, I’m excited about pushing the limits of what they’ve done. So, for instance, we’re a five day a week, daily show and they have done such a great job of curating and elevating voices within the company–journalist’s voices, based on the stories they do. We absolutely want to continue to be the place to get those voices to sports fans everywhere, but for me, I also think it’d be cool to sort of play with the form and format a little bit. So, we can do shows like that, but I’d like to sort of sprinkle in a little bit more newsmaking and even news breaking. I think the podcast format in the daily context that we do it in can actually be a real venue that’s worth investing in, when it comes to breaking some news; so I want to do a little bit more of that.
I want to continue to establish go-to correspondents, people who I can return to over and over again, that listeners of the podcast can expect to hear from because I think curating a sort of rotation like that would be really cool. And I also want to spotlight new voices.
So for me, I think there is the interviewing of journalists, there’s the interviewing of newsmakers, and then I think there is also the possibility to do a little fun theater of the mind stuff, sort of play with narrative a bit more.
Obviously, this is all very abstract but I think with a five day a week show, the ability to be multiple, as an NFL coach might say, in our approach, in our scheme is actually one of the advantages of this format and one that we actually have the staff to do.
CP: That kind of leads into my next question. You worked with Bomani Jones for a number of years. He’s such an innovative, forward thinker who broke the fourth wall in sports television by having conversations directly and honestly. What have you learned from him and what are some of your more memorable High Noon moments?
PT: Yeah, I mean what I enjoyed so much doing High Noon that I will use to inform this podcast is the value of a deep conversation. And having the space to explore digressions having the space to engage as you said with the audience about topics that maybe they don’t hear about all the time on sports talk shows or sports radio shows or podcasts. That’s exactly the sensibility that I want to bring, and the standard I want to uphold when it comes to having discussions on this podcast. I want to have not just the conversations that are smart for sports, but smart for any medium, any format, any type or genre of podcasts; whether that’s news in general or politics or culture.
I think what we’re aspiring to build with ESPN Daily is something that can hang with the best of the best when it comes to conversation. And so that sensibility of having a very wide aperture of interest and curiosity; that’s something that I enjoyed so much with Bo and why High Noon, I felt was a special show.
CP: I’m curious about the role The Dan Le Batard Show with Stugotz (or as I say, the ‘Le Batardian’) influence has played in expanding the format, but specifically, for you in your experience working with him?
PT: I mean look, I come from Dan’s coaching tree, I’m a Le Batardian piece of fruit that has grown from that tree. What I’ve always enjoyed about Dan is that he’s not only a serious voice on serious matters, but he’s also one of the funniest people at the network. And so for me, it’s that mix of high and low. It’s highbrow and lowbrow. It’s serious and comedic. It’s understanding that the job fundamentally is to entertain.
But the metaphor that I have been thinking about when it comes to how I want to be is both delicious and nutritious. How do I want to make people laugh, as well as think and even cry sometimes? I think about it in terms of: I’m cooking a meal and I want to make sure the ingredients are balanced. I want to make sure that if I’m going to give a kid vegetables. I want to give my daughter broccoli, for instance, she’s not old enough yet to eat food but soon she will be. I like broccoli and cheese, let’s melt some cheese on top of this. Let’s make sure that the person that is listening doesn’t feel like they’re being force fed something that they don’t enjoy.
Dan, and how he does his show, has always been a Northstar for me, in that, he’s aware that if the listener isn’t laughing and if the listener isn’t learning, then we’re falling short of the goal we’re setting out to achieve.
CP: Given the challenges of 2020, what have you learned or taken away from the sports-free shows you’ve worked on? You definitely have been quick to adapt with Highly Quarantined. Do you feel that in exploring alternative content, when there aren’t any live sports to cover, you learned more about what resonated with the audience?
PT: Absolutely. strangely, even though a sports media job without sports seems like a nightmare, in some ways it’s actually been able to showcase some of our strengths, and some of my most creative, kind of weird, ambitions. I love being offbeat. I love giving people something they’re not getting anywhere else, and so in a world without browser games because there are no games, the question of “well, what would a viewer of video or what would a listener of audio find interesting” is a question that I think can expose who actually can create content most creatively. And so for me, I find that the ability to have that out of the box sensibility is kind of perfectly suited for this time.
Growing up and coming up through journalism, I came up through magazines, so I wasn’t the daily beat guy. I always read those guys and I always paid attention because I was, and remain, a sports fan to my bones. But, I came up at Sports Illustrated and then ESPN The Magazine, so my sensibility has always been to be more open minded and curious and enterprise driven, as opposed to ‘here’s the number one story of the day, let’s make sure that we hit it in the way that people may have already expected to have seen this be hit.’
That magazine sensibility of ‘we’re gonna sprinkle in a long form story about someone that you may not know, but we think it’s worth your time’ I think that plays into a podcast like the one we’re building and developing. That’s something that I think ESPN Daily is particularly uniquely suited to pursue.
CP: You’ve been with ESPN for years, and with Sports Illustrated, as well in different capacities. In your time working with ESPN, short of taking the reigns at ESPN Daily, what has been your favorite moment in your time with the company.
PT: And that’s a great question because I’ve done a lot of absurd things I never would have dreamed. Yeah, I mean obviously launching High Noon with Bomani was a culmination of a career. It was something that I am still so proud of doing because it was different. It sounded and looked like nothing else, and I’m proud of what we did.
But beyond that, I would say, I’ve been so grateful to work on shows with people that I admire. So, on PTI, getting to know Tony Kornheiser to the point where he attended my wedding…and if you know anything about Tony Kornheiser, the guy doesn’t like going to or doing anything not directly inside of his comfort zone. But that’s a guy that I look up to, not only as one of the legends of sports broadcasting but as a writer.
We just talked about Dan. Doing Highly Questionable, still today, with Dan is one of the most fun things I do in my life. It’s just hanging out with a guy, who again, I look up to, but has since become my friend.
I mean, I married Dan Le Batard. I was the guy who married him and his wife in Miami, when they got married two months ago.
CP: So, you’re still ordained?
PT: Yes, I am an ordained minister of The Universal Life Church, so ESPN Daily can also do weddings.
I’ve basically got to work with people that I’ve legitimately gotten to love and know, as real close friends. that’s the best part about this job; my heroes in this business are now people that I continue to work with, talk about and talk to. And that’s a dream.
CP: Speaking of working alongside great talent, if you could choose any sports figure (coach, player past, present) to be your co-host, who would you choose and why?
PT: Well, the easy answer, for me, is Bill Walton, okay. And there are other voices out there that I respect and love and I know there are bigger names even, but I just find Bill Walton to be the most entertaining and disruptive and subversive voice, maybe in all of sports broadcasting. I just love his whole sensibility. So for me, I say that immediately just because that was the guest we wanted on High Noon that never got to happen. I just want to hang out with Bill Walton inside of his teepee, and I don’t want to hurt the feelings of my friends I love working with like Mina Kimes, I work with her. I love working with her, but unless Mina gets a teepee, it’s going to be really hard for her to compete.
CP: To wrap things up, I just wanted to do some word association– first thing that comes to your mind.
CP: Bomani Jones?
CP: Dan Le Batard?
CP: Tony Reali?
PT: Vital. I would like to credit Tony as he was key to me being on Around The Horn. Like Kornheiser, Tony Reali attended my wedding.
CP: Mina Kimes?
CP: Izzy Guiterrez?
PT: Let’s go with shirtless.
CP: That is fantastic.
PT: You’ve got to look up the photos of Izzy on a train track, I mean he is the most beautiful person at ESPN, and possibly, in sports media. He’s intimidatingly shirtless.
CP: Last but not least, how about Mike Golic Jr?
PT: Ooh, thick, with several C’s. T-H-I-C-C-C-C.
CP: Who got to fulfill his lifelong dream of hosting The Nathan’s Hot Dog Eating Contest this weekend..
PT: First off, Gojo is the perfect person to be doing that.
And I have so much respect for that whole enterprise because weirdly, and randomly the first story I ever did for Sports Illustrated was covering The Nathan’s Hot Dog Eating Contest. It’s always been one of my favorite events for that reason. And one of my friends is now involved in the broadcast.
CP: How full circle is that? I am so, so excited about the show. I know the transition is fast approaching.
PT: I’m going to be actually substituting in throughout July. I’ll be doing an episode Thursday, July 9th. I’ll be doing some episodes later on when Mina goes on vacation. And then August 1st is the official change over date.
Adam The Bull Is Giving Cleveland Something It’s Never Had Before
“It was only more recently that I was like why do I have to only be a radio guy?”
After spending 22 years on the radio, Adam “The Bull” Gerstenhaber was ready for a new adventure. In fact, the former co-host of Bull and Fox on 92.3 The Fan in Cleveland did not have a new job lined up when he signed off from his 11-year radio home last month.
“I was already leaving without having a new project,” admitted Gerstenhaber during a recent phone interview with BSM. “I left before I knew for sure I had a ‘next project’.”
Gerstenhaber was preparing for his final show with co-host Dustin Fox on April 1st when he was contacted by an executive producer for TEGNA, a company that was developing a Cleveland sports television show on YouTube. The executive producer, who had just found out that Bull was a free agent, made it clear that he wanted Bull to be a part of the new project.
It all came together very quickly.
“Let’s talk on Monday,” Gerstenhaber told the executive producer. “And within a week they signed me up.”
The Ultimate Cleveland Sports Show on YouTube featuring Gerstenhaber, former ESPN personality Jay Crawford, 92.3 The Fan’s Garrett Bush, and rotating hosts to make up a four-person round-table show, made its debut last Monday. The show, which airs weekdays from 11am to 1pm, features passionate Cleveland sports talk, live guests, either in-studio or via Zoom, as well as interaction from the audience through social media.
“I’m very excited,” said Gerstenhaber. “It’s a definite adjustment for me after 22 years on radio doing television. For the last 11 years, I’ve been doing a radio show with just one other host and I was the lead guy doing most of the talking and now I’m on a show with three other people and it’s such an adjustment. So far, I’m having a ball.”
And so far, the reaction to the show has been very positive.
A big reason why is that it’s something that Cleveland didn’t have and really never had, unlike a city like New York, where there are local radio shows that are simulcast on regional sports channels.
“There’s nothing like that in Cleveland,” said Gerstenhaber. “And there was certainly nothing like this with a panel. Cleveland is such a massive sports town and now people that don’t live in Cleveland that are maybe retired in Florida or Arizona, now they actually have a TV show that they can watch that’s Cleveland-centric.”
The new venture certainly represents a big change in what Bull has been used to in his radio career. He’s enjoying the freedom of not having to follow a hard clock for this show. In fact, there have already been some occasions where the show has been able to go a little longer than scheduled because they have the flexibility to do that on YouTube.
Doing a show on YouTube gives the panel a great opportunity to go deep into topics and spend some quality time with guests. And while there is no cursing on the show at the moment, there could be the potential for that down the road.
Don’t expect the show is going to become X-rated or anything like that, but the objective is to be able to capture the spirit and emotion of being a sports fan and host.
“It’s something we may do in the future,” said Gerstenhaber. “Not curse just to curse but it gives us the option if we get fired up. It is allowed because there’s no restrictions there. The company doesn’t want us to do it at the moment.”
There’s also been the shift for Gerstenhaber from being the “point guard” on his old radio show, driving the conversation and doing most of the talking, to now taking a step back and having Crawford distributing the ball on the television show.
For a guy called “The Bull”, that will take some getting used to.
“Jay is a pro’s pro,” said Gerstenhaber. “He’s the point guard for this but he’s also part of the conversation. I’m not used to not being the point guard so I have to adjust to that. I think it’s gone pretty well and the chemistry is pretty good and with time we’ll get used to the flow of it.”
Gerstenhaber’s move from sports radio to an internet television show is a perfect example of how the industry is changing. A good portion of the listening and viewing audience these days, especially those in the younger demographic, are not necessarily watching traditional television or listening to terrestrial radio. For a lot of sports fans, watching and listening on a mobile device or a computer has become a very important way of life.
The desire to adapt, along with a shorter workday, was very enticing to him.
“It was only more recently that I was like why do I have to only be a radio guy?” wondered Gerstenhaber. “There were things about my job that I was unhappy about. I was doing a five-hour radio show. It’s too long. That’s crazy. Nobody should be doing a five-hour radio show at this point.”
Broadcasting on the internet has arrived and it’s not just a couple of sports fans doing a show from their garage anymore. The business has evolved to the point where the technology has provided more opportunities for those who have already enjoyed success in the industry and are looking for new challenges.
Kind of like Adam The Bull!
“I think years ago, probably like many people in the radio business, we looked at internet and podcasts as like whatever…those guys aren’t professionals…they’re amateurs,” said Gerstenhaber. “But the game has changed.”
Gerstenhaber, Crawford and everyone associated with the “Ultimate Cleveland Sports Show” should not have much of a problem attracting the younger audience. That demographic is already accustomed to watching shows on YouTube and other streaming platforms. The challenge now is to get the more mature audience on board. There are certainly some obstacles there.
I know this from experience with trying to explain to my mother in Florida how she can hear me on the radio and watch me on television simply by using her tablet.
Bull can certainly relate to that.
“My mother is still trying to figure out how to watch the show live,” said Gerstenhaber with a chuckle. “The older fans struggle with that. A lot of my older fans here in Cleveland are like how do I watch it? For people that are under 40 and certainly people that under 30, watching a YouTube show is like okay I watch everything on my phone or device. It’s such a divide and obviously as the years go by, that group will increase.”
With the television show off and running, Gerstenhaber still has a passion for his roots and that’s the radio side of the business. In the next couple of weeks, “The Bull” is set to announce the launch of two podcasts, one daily and one weekly, that will begin next month. But he also hasn’t ruled out the possibility of returning to terrestrial radio at some point.
“I have not closed the door to radio,” said Gerstenhaber. “I still love radio. I would still, in the right set of circumstances, consider going back to radio but it would have to really be the perfect situation. I’m excited about (the television show) and right now I don’t want to do anything else but I’m certainly going to remain open-minded to radio if a really excellent opportunity came up.”
The landscape of the broadcasting industry, particularly when it comes to sports, has certainly changed over the years and continues to evolve. Adam Gerstenhaber certainly enjoyed a tremendous amount of success on the radio side, both in New York and in Cleveland, but now he has made the transition to something new with the YouTube television show and he’s committed to making it a success.
Why You Should Be Making Great TikTok Content
“We’re specially trained in the world of TSL (time spent listening), and the longer people view your content on TikTok, the more the app rewards you by shoving your content into more and more feeds.”
It feels like there’s a new social media platform to pay attention to every other week. That makes it easy to overlook when one of them actually presents value to your brand. It wasn’t long ago that TikTok was primarily used by teenagers with the focus being silly dance trends filmed for video consumption with their friends and followers alike. Now, as the general public has become in tune with how this complicated app works, it’s grown far beyond that.
TikTok is now an app used by all types of demographics and unlike TikTok’s closely related cousins Instagram and Facebook, this app provides a certain type of nuance that I think people in our line of work can really excel in.
Before I get into the nuts and bolts of how you can use TikTok to your advantage and how to make your videos catch on, I think it’s important to first mention why this matters for you. Now, if I’m being realistic, I’m sure there are some that have already stopped reading this or those that could scroll away fast enough when they saw the words TikTok. You might be thinking that this doesn’t fit your demo, or maybe that it’s a waste of time because productivity here won’t directly lead to an uptick in Nielsen ratings. But I’m not sure any social network directly leads to what we ultimately get judged on, and we aren’t always pumping out content directly to our core audience.
TikTok, like any other app you may use, is marketing. This is another free tool to let people out there know who you are and what you offer in this endless sea of content. And the beauty of TikTok is that it directly caters its algorithm to content creators just like us. Bottom line, if you are a personality in sports talk, there’s no reason you can’t be crushing it on TikTok right now. All it takes is a little direction, focus, consistency, and a plan.
Unlike Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter where you can throw a photo up with a caption and be done for the day, TikTok’s whole model is built on creative videos that keep users engaged for longer periods of time. This approach works. According to Oberlo, a social media stat tracking site, people spend more time per day on TikTok than any other popular social media application. 38 minutes per day!
This is where this is good news for us in talk radio. We’re specially trained in the world of TSL (time spent listening), and the longer people view your content on TikTok, the more the app rewards you by shoving your content into more and more feeds. TikTok’s algorithm doesn’t care how many followers you have, your level of credibility, or the production on your video. All ir cares about is 1) Is your content good. and 2) Are people watching it. 3) How long are they watching it. The more people watch and the longer they watch creates a snowball effect. Your videos views will skyrocket, sometimes within hours.
So, how do you create content that will catch on? It’s really not all that different than what you do every day. Create thought-provoking commentary that makes people think, argue, or stay till the end to get the info you teased up for them. I’ve found through my own trial and error that it’s best if you stay away from time-sensitive material, I’ve had more success the more evergreen my content is. That way, the shelf life expands beyond just that day or week. This is different for everyone and there’s no one-size-fits-all, but this is where I’ve seen the most success.
Also, put yourself out there, don’t be afraid to say something that people are going to vehemently disagree with. Again, it’s not unlike what we do every day. It’s one thing to get someone to listen, it’s another to get them to engage. Once they hit you in the comment section, you’ve got them hooked. Comments breed more views and on and on. But don’t just let those sit there, even the smallest interaction back like a shoulder shrug emoji can go a long way in creating more play for your video.
If you want to grow quickly, create a niche for yourself. The best content creators that I follow on TikTok all put out very similar content for most of their videos. This means, unlike Instagram where it’s great to show what a wildly interesting and eclectic person you are, TikTok users want to know what they’re getting the second your face pops up on that screen. So if you are the sports history guy, be the sports history guy all the time. If you are the top 5 list guy, be the top 5 list guy all the time, and on and on, you get the point.
Other simple tricks:
- Splice small videos together. Don’t shoot one long video.
- 90 seconds to 2 minutes is a sweet spot amount of time.
- Add a soft layer of background instrumental music (this feature is found in the app when you are putting the finishing touches on your video)
- Label your video across the screen at the start and time it out so that it disappears seconds later. This way a user gets an idea of what the content is immediately and then can focus on you delivering your message thereafter.
- Research trending hashtags, they are far more important than whatever you caption your video.
- Use closed captions so that people can follow your video without sound.
Finally, don’t be intimidated by it or snub your nose at it. Anything that helps your brand is worth doing and anything worth doing is worth doing well.
Does Tom Brady’s Salary Make Sense For FOX In a Changing Media World?
“The risk here doesn’t have to do with Brady specifically, but rather the business of televising football games in general.”
FOX is playing it too safe when it comes to adding Tom Brady.
That’s going to sound weird given the size of Brady’s broadcasting contract. Even if that deal isn’t worth as much as initially reported, it’s a hell of a lot of loot, especially considering Brady has remained steadfastly uninteresting for a solid 20 years now.
Let’s not pretend that is a detriment in the eyes of a television network, however. There’s a long line of famous athletes companies like FOX have happily paid millions without ever requiring them to be much more than consistently inoffensive and occasionally insightful. Yes, Brady is getting more money than those previous guys, but he’s also the most successful quarterback in NFL history.
The risk here doesn’t have to do with Brady specifically, but rather the business of televising football games in general. More specifically, the fact that the business of televising football games is changing, and while it may not be changing quite as rapidly as the rest of the sports-media industry, but it is changing. There’s an increasing number of choices available to viewers not only in the games that can be watched, but how they are consumed. Everything in the industry points to an increasingly fragmented audience and yet by signing Brady to be in the broadcast booth once he retires, FOX is paying a premium for a single component in a tried-and-true broadcasting formula will be more successful.
Think of Brady’s hiring as a bet FOX made. A 10-year commitment in which it is doubling down on the status quo at a time of obvious change. FOX saw ESPN introduce the ManningCast last year, and instead of seeing the potential for a network to build different types of products, FOX decided, “Nah, we don’t want to do anything different or new.” Don’t let the price tag fool you. FOX went out and bought a really famous former player to put in a traditional broadcast booth to hope that the center holds..
Maybe it will. Maybe Brady is that interesting or he’s that famous and his presence is powerful enough to defy the trends within the industry. I’m not naive enough to think that value depends on the quality of someone’s content. The memoir of a former U.S. president will fetch a multi-million-dollar advance not because of the literary quality, but because of the size of the potential audience. It’s the same rationale behind FOX’s addition of Brady.
But don’t mistake an expensive addition from an innovative one. The ManningCast was an actual innovation. A totally different way of televising a football game, and while not everyone liked it, some people absolutely loved it. It’s not going to replace the regular Monday Night Football format, but it wasn’t supposed to. It’s an alternative or more likely a complement and ESPN was sufficiently encouraged to extend the ManningCast through 2024. It’s a different product. Another option it is offering its customers. You can choose to watch to the traditional broadcast format with Joe Buck and Troy Aikman in the booth or you can watch the Mannings or you can toggle between both. What’s FOX’s option for those audience members who prefer something like the ManningCast to the traditional broadcast?
It’s not just ESPN, either. Amazon offered viewers a choice of broadcasters, too, from a female announcing tandem of Hannah Storm and Andrea Kramer beginning in 2018 to the Scouts Feed with Daniel Jeremiah and Bucky Brooks in 2020.
So now, not only do viewers have an increasingly wide array of choices on which NFL games they can watch — thanks to Sunday Ticket — they in some instances have a choice of the announcing crew for that given game. Amid this economic environment, FOX not only decided that it was best to invest in a single product, but it decided to make that investment in a guy who had never done this particular job before nor shown much in the way of an aptitude for it.
Again, maybe Brady is the guy to pull it off. He’s certainly famous enough. His seven Super Bowl victories are unmatched and span two franchises, and while he’s denied most attempts to be anything approaching interesting in public over the past 20 years, perhaps that is changing. His increasingly amusing Twitter posts over the past 2 years could be a hint of the humor he’s going to bring to the broadcast booth. That Tampa Tom is his true personality, which remained under a gag order from the Sith Lord Bill Belichick, and now Brady will suddenly become football’s equivalent of Charles Barkley.
But that’s a hell of a needle to thread for anyone, even someone as famous as Brady, and it’s a really high bar for someone with no broadcasting experience. The upside for FOX is that its traditional approach holds. The downside, however, is that it is not only spending more money on a product with a declining market, but it is ignoring obvious trends within the industry as it does so.